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MEASLES, MUMPS, AND RUBELLA VIRUS VACCINE LIVE (Systemic)
Some commonly used brand names are:
In the U.S.—
Measles, mumps, and rubella (MEE-zills and rue-BELL-a) virus vaccine live is an active immunizing agent used to prevent infection by the measles, mumps, and rubella viruses. It works by causing your body to produce its own protection (antibodies) against the virus.
Measles (also known as coughing measles, hard measles, morbilli, red measles, rubeola, and 10-day measles) is an infection that is easily spread from one person to another. Infection with measles can cause serious problems, such as stomach problems, pneumonia, ear infections, sinus problems, convulsions (seizures), brain damage, and possibly death. The risk of serious complications and death is greater for adults and infants than for children and teenagers.
Mumps is an infection that can cause serious problems, such as encephalitis and meningitis, which affect the brain. In addition, adolescent boys and men are very susceptible to a condition called orchitis, which causes pain and swelling in the testicles and scrotum and, in rare cases, sterility. Also, mumps infection can cause spontaneous abortion (miscarriage) in women during the first 3 months of pregnancy.
Rubella (also known as German measles) is a serious infection that causes miscarriages, stillbirths, or birth defects in unborn babies when pregnant women get the disease.
While immunization against measles, mumps, and rubella is recommended for all persons 12 months of age and older, it is especially important for women of childbearing age and persons traveling outside the U.S.
If measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine is to be given to a child, the child should be at least 12 months of age. This is to make sure the measles vaccine is effective. In a younger child, antibodies from the mother may interfere with the effectiveness of the vaccine.
This vaccine should be administered only by or under the supervision of your doctor or other health care professional. It is available in the following dosage form:
Before Receiving This Vaccine
In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine, the following should be considered:
Allergies—Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine, to the antibiotic neomycin, to gelatin, or to eggs. Also tell your health care professional if you are allergic to any other substances, such as preservatives.
Pregnancy—Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or if you may become pregnant within 3 months after receiving this vaccine. Although adequate studies have not been done in either humans or animals and problems have not been shown to occur, use of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine during pregnancy, or becoming pregnant within 3 months after receiving the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine, is not recommended. Because the natural measles infection has been shown to increase the chance of birth defects and other problems, it is thought that the live virus vaccine may cause similar problems. Mumps vaccine may infect the placenta, although the vaccine has not been shown to infect the fetus or to cause birth defects. Rubella vaccine crosses the placenta. However, the Centers for Disease Control observed more than 200 women who received the vaccine within 3 months before or after becoming pregnant and those women gave birth to normal babies.
Breast-feeding—Mothers who are receiving measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine and who wish to breast-feed should discuss this with their doctors, because rubella vaccine virus may pass into the breast milk and may cause mild rubella infection in nursing babies. However, studies have not shown that this infection causes any serious problems.
Children—Use is not recommended for infants younger than 12 months of age, unless the risk of measles infection is high. Waiting until children are at least 12 months of age is important because antibodies that infants receive from their mothers before birth may interfere with the effectiveness of the vaccine. There may be special reasons why children between 6 months and 12 months of age also may require measles vaccination.
Other medicines—Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. Before you receive measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine, it is especially important that your health care professional know if you have received any of the following:
Other medical problems—The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:
Proper Use of This Vaccine
Dosing—The dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine will be different for different patients. The following information includes only the average dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine.
Precautions After Receiving This Vaccine
Do not become pregnant for 3 months after receiving measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine . There is a chance that this vaccine may cause birth defects.
Tell your doctor that you have received this vaccine:
Side Effects of This Vaccine
Along with its needed effects, a vaccine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.
Get emergency help immediately if any of the following side effects occur:
Symptoms of allergic reaction
Difficulty in breathing or swallowing; hives; itching, especially of feet or hands; reddening of skin, especially around ears; swelling of eyes, face, or inside of nose; unusual tiredness or weakness (sudden and severe)
Check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur:
Fever higher than 103 °F (39.4 °C)
Pain or tenderness of eyes
Bruising or purple spots on skin; confusion; convulsions (seizures); double vision; headache (severe or continuing); irritability; pain, numbness, or tingling of hands, arms, legs, or feet; pain, tenderness, or swelling in testicles and scrotum; stiff neck; vomiting
Other side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. However, check with your doctor if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome:
Burning or stinging at place of injection; fever between 100 and 103 °F (37.7 and 39.4 °C); skin rash; swelling of glands in neck
Aches or pain in joints; headache (mild); itching, swelling, redness, tenderness, or hard lump at place of injection; nausea; runny nose; sore throat; vague feeling of bodily discomfort
The above side effects (especially aches or pain in joints) are more likely to occur in adults, particularly women.
Other side effects not listed above also may occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your doctor.
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