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LOPINAVIR AND RITONAVIR (Systemic)
Some commonly used brand names are:
In the U.S.—
The combination of lopinavir and ritonavir (low-PIN-a-veer and ri-TOE-na-veer) is used in the treatment of the infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV is the virus responsible for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is used to slow the progression of disease in patients infected with HIV who have advanced symptoms, early symptoms, or no symptoms at all.
Lopinavir and ritonavir will not cure or prevent HIV infection or AIDS; however, it helps keep HIV from reproducing and appears to slow down the destruction of the immune system. This may help delay the development of problems usually related to AIDS or HIV disease. Lopinavir and ritonavir will not keep you from spreading HIV to other people. People who receive this medicine may continue to have other problems usually related to AIDS or HIV disease.
This medicine is available only with your doctor"s prescription, in the following dosage forms:
Before Using This Medicine
In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For lopinavir and ritonavir, the following should be considered:
Allergies—Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to lopinavir or ritonavir. Also tell your health care professional if you are allergic to any other substances, such as foods, preservatives, or dyes.
Pregnancy—Lopinavir and ritonavir has not been studied in pregnant women. However, it has been found to cause birth defects and other problems in animals at doses many times the human dose. Before taking this medicine, make sure your doctor knows if you are pregnant or if you may become pregnant.
Breast-feeding—It is not known whether lopinavir and ritonavir pass into breast milk. However, because of the possibility that this medicine could cause unwanted effects in nursing babies and the risk of passing HIV on to the infant, breast-feeding is usually not recommended.
Children—The twice-daily dose of this medicine has been tested in children 6 months of age and older and, in effective doses, has not been shown to cause different side effects or problems than it does in adults.
The once-daily dose of this medicine have been tested only in adult patients and there is no specific information comparing use in children with use in other age groups.
Older adults—Many medicines have not been studied specifically in older people. Therefore, it may not be known whether they work exactly the same way they do in younger adults or if they cause different side effects or problems in older people. There is no specific information comparing use of lopinavir and ritonavir in the elderly with use in other age groups.
Other medicines—Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking lopinavir and ritonavir, it is especially important that your health care professional knows if you are taking any of the following:
Other medical problems—The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of lopinavir and ritonavir. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:
Proper Use of This Medicine
A paper with information about lopinavir and ritonavir will be given to you with your filled prescription. Read this paper carefully and ask your health care professional if you need additional information or explanation.
It is important that lopinavir and ritonavir capsules and oral solution be taken with food.
Lopinavir and ritonavir tablets may be taken with or without food.
For oral solution dosage form, use calibrated dosing syringe to measure dose.
For tablet dosage form, swallow whole and do not crush or chew.
Take this medicine exactly as directed by your doctor. Do not take it more often and do not take it for a longer time than your doctor ordered. Also, do not stop taking this medicine without checking with your doctor first.
Dosing—The dose of lopinavir and ritonavir will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor"s orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of lopinavir and ritonavir. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.
The number of capsules, tablets, or milliliters (mL) of lopinavir and ritonavir that you take depends on the strength of the medicine.
Missed dose—If you miss a dose of this medicine, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.
Storage—To store this medicine:
Precautions While Using This Medicine
It is very important that your doctor check your progress at regular visits to make sure this medicine is working properly and to check for unwanted effects.
If you are taking the oral solution form of this medicine, you should limit the amount of alcohol you drink. The oral solution contains 42% alcohol.
It is very important that you use a second type of birth control if you are currently using an estrogen-containing form of birth control
If you are taking sildenafil, tadalafil, or vardenafil, it is very important to report any side effects, especially dizziness, fainting, or changes in your vision
Side Effects of This Medicine
Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.
Bloating; blurred vision; chills ; constipation; darkened urine; dry mouth; fast heart beat; fatigue; fever; flushed, dry skin; fruit-like breath odor; increased hunger; increased thirst; increased urination; indigestion; loss of appetite; loss of consciousness; nausea; pains in stomach, side, or abdomen, possibly moving to the back; sweating ; troubled breathing; unexplained weight loss; vomiting; yellow eyes or skin
Frequency not determined
Blistering, peeling, loosening of skin ; chest pain or discomfort; cough; diarrhea; itching ; joint or muscle pain; lightheadedness, dizziness or fainting; red irritated eyes; shortness of breath; slow or irregular heartbeat; sore throat; sores, ulcers, or white spots in mouth or on lips; ; unusual tiredness
Other side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. However, check with your doctor if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome.
Abnormal stools; acid or sour stomach; belching; headache; heartburn; lack or loss of strength; pain; skin rash; stomach discomfort, upset, or pain; trouble in sleeping
Other side effects may occur that do not require medical attention.
Frequency not determinedRedistribution of body fat
Other side effects not listed above may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your doctor.
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